android – 进一步理解setRetainInstance(true)

当在片段上调用setRetainInstance(true)时,会发生什么?文档几乎不存在,这似乎是一个非常重要的功能。具体来说,我想知道这个序列的多少(我弥补)是真的:

  1. The user rotates the device.
  2. The fragment is detached from the Activity and Fragment.onDetach() is called.
  3. The activity is destroyed; Activity.onDestroy() is called.
  4. The Activity java object is deleted (when possible, by the GC).
  5. A new Activity java object is created; its constructor, and onCreate() are called.
  6. In Activity.onCreate() we either have setContentView(...) which sets a layout containing a fragment, or we use FragmentTransaction
    to add a fragment.
  7. I’m really not sure about this, but I assume that android is smart enough to find the old fragment, and call Fragment.onAttach() to
    reattach it to the new Activity
  8. Next (or before? who knows?) Activity.onResume() is called.

那是正确的吗?是Android聪明到找到旧的碎片,即使我明确使用FragmentTransaction.add(新的MyFragment(),…)第一次吗?如果是这样,我如何避免在onCreate()中添加另一个片段?我需要做这样的事情吗?

    if (getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentByTag("foo") == null)
    {
        FragmentTransaction ft = getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
        ft.add(new FooFragment(), "foo").commit();
    }

为什么在文档中没有这些?哈不,只是开玩笑不回答!

好吧,也许我对Android文档有点太苛刻,因为它有一些有用的信息,但可惜的是,它没有链接从setRetainInstance()。从the page about fragments

Note: Each fragment requires a unique identifier that the system can
use to restore the fragment if the activity is restarted (and which
you can use to capture the fragment to perform transactions, such as
remove it). There are three ways to provide an ID for a fragment:

  • Supply the android:id attribute with a unique ID.
  • Supply the android:tag attribute with a unique string.
  • If you provide neither of the previous two, the system uses the ID of the container view.

这意味着如果你在Activity.onCreated()中设置setContentView(R.layout.whatever)并且该布局包含一个带有setRetainInstance(true)的片段,那么当活动被重新创建时,将使用它的id或标签再次搜索。

其次,对于无UI的碎片,它说

To add a fragment without a UI, add the fragment from the activity
using add(Fragment, String) (supplying a unique string “tag” for the
fragment, rather than a view ID). This adds the fragment, but, because
it’s not associated with a view in the activity layout, it does not
receive a call to onCreateView(). So you don’t need to implement that
method.

和文档链接到一个很好的例子 – FragmentRetainInstance.java,我已经为了您的方便下面复制。它的确正是我推测是我的问题的答案(if(… findFragmentByTag()== null){…)。

最后,我创建了我自己的测试活动,以确切地了解什么函数被调用。当您以纵向开始并旋转到横向时,它输出此。代码如下。

(这被编辑了一点,使它更容易阅读。)

TestActivity@415a4a30: this()
TestActivity@415a4a30: onCreate()
TestActivity@415a4a30: Existing fragment not found.
TestFragment{41583008}: this() TestFragment{41583008}
TestFragment{41583008}: onAttach(TestActivity@415a4a30)
TestFragment{41583008}: onCreate()
TestFragment{41583008}: onCreateView()
TestFragment{41583008}: onActivityCreated()
TestActivity@415a4a30: onStart()
TestFragment{41583008}: onStart()
TestActivity@415a4a30: onResume()
TestFragment{41583008}: onResume()

<rotate device>

TestFragment{41583008}: onPause()
TestActivity@415a4a30: onPause()
TestFragment{41583008}: onStop()
TestActivity@415a4a30: onStop()
TestFragment{41583008}: onDestroyView()
TestFragment{41583008}: onDetach()
TestActivity@415a4a30: onDestroy()
TestActivity@415a3380: this()
TestFragment{41583008}: onAttach(TestActivity@415a3380)
TestActivity@415a3380: onCreate()
TestActivity@415a3380: Existing fragment found.
TestFragment{41583008}: onCreateView()
TestFragment{41583008}: onActivityCreated()
TestActivity@415a3380: onStart()
TestFragment{41583008}: onStart()
TestActivity@415a3380: onResume()
TestFragment{41583008}: onResume()

请注意,Android文档是错误的:无UI的片段确实接收到对onCreateView()的调用,但它是免费的返回null。

TestActivity / TestFragment的源代码

import android.app.Activity;
import android.app.Fragment;
import android.app.FragmentTransaction;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.widget.TextView;

import com.concentriclivers.ss.R;

// An activity for understanding Android lifecycle events.
public class TestActivity extends Activity
{
    private static final String TAG = TestActivity.class.getSimpleName();

    public TestActivity()
    {
        super();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": this()");
    }

    protected void finalize() throws Throwable
    {
        super.finalize();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": finalize()");
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": onCreate()");


        TextView tv = new TextView(this);
        tv.setText("Hello world");
        setContentView(tv);

        if (getFragmentManager().findFragmentByTag("test_fragment") == null)
        {
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": Existing fragment not found.");
            FragmentTransaction ft = getFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
            ft.add(new TestFragment(), "test_fragment").commit();
        }
        else
        {
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": Existing fragment found.");
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onStart()
    {
        super.onStart();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": onStart()");
    }

    @Override
    public void onResume()
    {
        super.onResume();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": onResume()");
    }

    @Override
    public void onPause()
    {
        super.onPause();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": onPause()");
    }

    @Override
    public void onStop()
    {
        super.onStop();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": onStop()");
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy()
    {
        super.onDestroy();
        Log.d(TAG, this + ": onDestroy()");
    }




    public static class TestFragment extends Fragment
    {
        private static final String TAG = TestFragment.class.getSimpleName();

        public TestFragment()
        {
            super();
            Log.d(TAG,  this + ": this() " + this);
        }

        @Override
        public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
        {
            super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onCreate()");
            setRetainInstance(true);
        }

        @Override
        public void onAttach(final Activity activity)
        {
            super.onAttach(activity);
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onAttach(" + activity + ")");
        }

        @Override
        public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState)
        {
            super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onActivityCreated()");
        }

        @Override
        public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container, Bundle savedInstanceState)
        {
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onCreateView()");
            return null;
        }

        @Override
        public void onViewCreated(View view, Bundle savedInstanceState)
        {
            super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState);
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onViewCreated()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onDestroyView()
        {
            super.onDestroyView();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onDestroyView()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onDetach()
        {
            super.onDetach();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onDetach()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onStart()
        {
            super.onStart();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onStart()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onResume()
        {
            super.onResume();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onResume()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onPause()
        {
            super.onPause();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onPause()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onStop()
        {
            super.onStop();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onStop()");
        }

        @Override
        public void onDestroy()
        {
            super.onDestroy();
            Log.d(TAG, this + ": onDestroy()");
        }
    }

}

FragmentRetainInstance.java的源代码(自API 16开始):

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2010 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.android.apis.app;

import com.example.android.apis.R;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.app.Fragment;
import android.app.FragmentManager;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.view.View.OnClickListener;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.ProgressBar;

/**
 * This example shows how you can use a Fragment to easily propagate state
 * (such as threads) across activity instances when an activity needs to be
 * restarted due to, for example, a configuration change.  This is a lot
 * easier than using the raw Activity.onRetainNonConfiguratinInstance() API.
 */
public class FragmentRetainInstance extends Activity {
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        // First time init, create the UI.
        if (savedInstanceState == null) {
            getFragmentManager().beginTransaction().add(android.R.id.content,
                    new UiFragment()).commit();
        }
    }

    /**
     * This is a fragment showing UI that will be updated from work done
     * in the retained fragment.
     */
    public static class UiFragment extends Fragment {
        RetainedFragment mWorkFragment;

        @Override
        public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container,
                Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            View v = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_retain_instance, container, false);

            // Watch for button clicks.
            Button button = (Button)v.findViewById(R.id.restart);
            button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {
                public void onClick(View v) {
                    mWorkFragment.restart();
                }
            });

            return v;
        }

        @Override
        public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

            FragmentManager fm = getFragmentManager();

            // Check to see if we have retained the worker fragment.
            mWorkFragment = (RetainedFragment)fm.findFragmentByTag("work");

            // If not retained (or first time running), we need to create it.
            if (mWorkFragment == null) {
                mWorkFragment = new RetainedFragment();
                // Tell it who it is working with.
                mWorkFragment.setTargetFragment(this, 0);
                fm.beginTransaction().add(mWorkFragment, "work").commit();
            }
        }

    }

    /**
     * This is the Fragment implementation that will be retained across
     * activity instances.  It represents some ongoing work, here a thread
     * we have that sits around incrementing a progress indicator.
     */
    public static class RetainedFragment extends Fragment {
        ProgressBar mProgressBar;
        int mPosition;
        boolean mReady = false;
        boolean mQuiting = false;

        /**
         * This is the thread that will do our work.  It sits in a loop running
         * the progress up until it has reached the top, then stops and waits.
         */
        final Thread mThread = new Thread() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                // We'll figure the real value out later.
                int max = 10000;

                // This thread runs almost forever.
                while (true) {

                    // Update our shared state with the UI.
                    synchronized (this) {
                        // Our thread is stopped if the UI is not ready
                        // or it has completed its work.
                        while (!mReady || mPosition >= max) {
                            if (mQuiting) {
                                return;
                            }
                            try {
                                wait();
                            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                            }
                        }

                        // Now update the progress.  Note it is important that
                        // we touch the progress bar with the lock held, so it
                        // doesn't disappear on us.
                        mPosition++;
                        max = mProgressBar.getMax();
                        mProgressBar.setProgress(mPosition);
                    }

                    // Normally we would be doing some work, but put a kludge
                    // here to pretend like we are.
                    synchronized (this) {
                        try {
                            wait(50);
                        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        };

        /**
         * Fragment initialization.  We way we want to be retained and
         * start our thread.
         */
        @Override
        public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

            // Tell the framework to try to keep this fragment around
            // during a configuration change.
            setRetainInstance(true);

            // Start up the worker thread.
            mThread.start();
        }

        /**
         * This is called when the Fragment's Activity is ready to go, after
         * its content view has been installed; it is called both after
         * the initial fragment creation and after the fragment is re-attached
         * to a new activity.
         */
        @Override
        public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

            // Retrieve the progress bar from the target's view hierarchy.
            mProgressBar = (ProgressBar)getTargetFragment().getView().findViewById(
                    R.id.progress_horizontal);

            // We are ready for our thread to go.
            synchronized (mThread) {
                mReady = true;
                mThread.notify();
            }
        }

        /**
         * This is called when the fragment is going away.  It is NOT called
         * when the fragment is being propagated between activity instances.
         */
        @Override
        public void onDestroy() {
            // Make the thread go away.
            synchronized (mThread) {
                mReady = false;
                mQuiting = true;
                mThread.notify();
            }

            super.onDestroy();
        }

        /**
         * This is called right before the fragment is detached from its
         * current activity instance.
         */
        @Override
        public void onDetach() {
            // This fragment is being detached from its activity.  We need
            // to make sure its thread is not going to touch any activity
            // state after returning from this function.
            synchronized (mThread) {
                mProgressBar = null;
                mReady = false;
                mThread.notify();
            }

            super.onDetach();
        }

        /**
         * API for our UI to restart the progress thread.
         */
        public void restart() {
            synchronized (mThread) {
                mPosition = 0;
                mThread.notify();
            }
        }
    }
}
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/12640316/further-understanding-setretaininstancetrue

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