如何在运行时发出和执行Java字节码?

我在Java中编写一个解释器,用于具有某些脚本功能的特定领域语言。我已经实现了一个解析器,现在需要做一个后端。为此,我考虑要写我自己的解释器(使用抽象语法树或一些自定义字节码)或目标JVM(在运行时发射和执行Java字节码)。

有人在这方面有更多的经验说,如何可行的目标JVM的方法和什么库,你会建议用于发出Java字节码?

这里是一个工作“hello世界”用ObjectWeb ASM(我推荐的图书馆):

package hello;

import java.lang.reflect.Method;

import org.objectweb.asm.ClassWriter;
import org.objectweb.asm.Label;
import org.objectweb.asm.MethodVisitor;
import org.objectweb.asm.Opcodes;

public class HelloWorldASM implements Opcodes {
    public static byte[] compile(String name) {
        ClassWriter cw = new ClassWriter(0);
        MethodVisitor mv;

        cw.visit(V1_6, ACC_PUBLIC + ACC_SUPER, "hello/HelloWorld", null,
                "java/lang/Object", null);

        cw.visitSource("HelloWorld.java", null);

        {
            mv = cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, "<init>", "()V", null, null);
            mv.visitCode();
            Label l0 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l0);
            mv.visitLineNumber(4, l0);
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/Object", "<init>",
                    "()V");
            mv.visitInsn(RETURN);
            Label l1 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l1);
            mv.visitLocalVariable("this", "Lhello/HelloWorld;", null, l0, l1,
                    0);
            mv.visitMaxs(1, 1);
            mv.visitEnd();
        }
        {
            mv = cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC + ACC_STATIC, "main",
                    "([Ljava/lang/String;)V", null, null);
            mv.visitCode();
            Label l0 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l0);
            mv.visitLineNumber(7, l0);
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, "java/lang/System", "out",
                    "Ljava/io/PrintStream;");
            mv.visitLdcInsn(String.format("Hello, %s!", name));
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/io/PrintStream", "println",
                    "(Ljava/lang/String;)V");
            Label l1 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l1);
            mv.visitLineNumber(8, l1);
            mv.visitInsn(RETURN);
            Label l2 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l2);
            mv.visitLocalVariable("args", "[Ljava/lang/String;", null, l0, l2,
                    0);
            mv.visitMaxs(2, 1);
            mv.visitEnd();
        }
        cw.visitEnd();

        return cw.toByteArray();
    }

    public static class DynamicClassLoader extends ClassLoader {
        public Class<?> define(String className, byte[] bytecode) {
            return super.defineClass(className, bytecode, 0, bytecode.length);
        }
    };

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        DynamicClassLoader loader = new DynamicClassLoader();
        Class<?> helloWorldClass = loader.define("hello.HelloWorld",
                compile("Test"));
        Method method = helloWorldClass.getMethod("main", String[].class);
        method.invoke(null, (Object) new String[] {});
    }
}

为了生成代码,我发现非常有用的Bytecode Outline for Eclipse插件。虽然您可以使用ASMifier(包括在ASM中)如下:

ClassReader cr = new ClassReader(new FileInputStream("HelloWorld.class"));
cr.accept(new ASMifierClassVisitor(new PrintWriter(System.out)), 0);

在运行时,如果您需要为创建的类获取Class对象,则可以通过扩展类加载器并发布(例如通过另一种方法)defineClass方法并提供类作为字节数组来加载类,如列出在示例中。

您还可以使用接口处理创建的类,如下例所示:

package hello;

import org.objectweb.asm.ClassWriter;
import org.objectweb.asm.Label;
import org.objectweb.asm.MethodVisitor;
import org.objectweb.asm.Opcodes;

public class HelloWorldPlugin implements Opcodes {
    public static interface Plugin {
        void sayHello(String name);
    }

    public static byte[] compile() {

        ClassWriter cw = new ClassWriter(0);
        MethodVisitor mv;

        cw.visit(V1_6, ACC_PUBLIC + ACC_SUPER, "hello/MyClass", null,
                "java/lang/Object",
                new String[] { "hello/HelloWorldPlugin$Plugin" });

        cw.visitInnerClass("hello/HelloWorldPlugin$Plugin",
                "hello/HelloWorldPlugin", "Plugin", ACC_PUBLIC + ACC_STATIC
                        + ACC_ABSTRACT + ACC_INTERFACE);

        {
            mv = cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, "<init>", "()V", null, null);
            mv.visitCode();
            Label l0 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l0);
            mv.visitLineNumber(5, l0);
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/Object", "<init>",
                    "()V");
            mv.visitInsn(RETURN);
            Label l1 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l1);
            mv.visitLocalVariable("this", "Lhello/MyClass;", null, l0, l1, 0);
            mv.visitMaxs(1, 1);
            mv.visitEnd();
        }
        {
            mv = cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, "sayHello",
                    "(Ljava/lang/String;)V", null, null);
            mv.visitCode();
            Label l0 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l0);
            mv.visitLineNumber(9, l0);
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, "java/lang/System", "out",
                    "Ljava/io/PrintStream;");
            mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "java/lang/StringBuilder");
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            mv.visitLdcInsn("Hello, ");
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder",
                    "<init>", "(Ljava/lang/String;)V");
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 1);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder",
                    "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;");
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder",
                    "toString", "()Ljava/lang/String;");
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/io/PrintStream", "println",
                    "(Ljava/lang/String;)V");
            Label l1 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l1);
            mv.visitLineNumber(10, l1);
            mv.visitInsn(RETURN);
            Label l2 = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l2);
            mv.visitLocalVariable("this", "Lhello/MyClass;", null, l0, l2, 0);
            mv.visitLocalVariable("name", "Ljava/lang/String;", null, l0, l2,
                    1);
            mv.visitMaxs(4, 2);
            mv.visitEnd();
        }
        cw.visitEnd();

        return cw.toByteArray();
    }

    public static class DynamicClassLoader extends ClassLoader {
        public DynamicClassLoader(ClassLoader parent) {
            super(parent);
        }

        public Class<?> define(String className, byte[] bytecode) {
            return super.defineClass(className, bytecode, 0, bytecode.length);
        }
    };

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        DynamicClassLoader loader = new DynamicClassLoader(Thread
                .currentThread().getContextClassLoader());
        Class<?> helloWorldClass = loader.define("hello.MyClass", compile());
        Plugin plugin = (Plugin) helloWorldClass.newInstance();
        plugin.sayHello("Test");
    }
}

玩的开心。

PS:如果不够清楚,我可以向代码添加注释。我没有因为答案已经太长了。然而,我的建议是你试试调试它。

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4016305/how-to-emit-and-execute-java-bytecode-at-runtime

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