linux – 高负载平均值,CPU利用率适中,几乎没有IO

linux下使用很少cpu的高负载平均值的通常解释是IO太多(或者更合适uninterruptable sleep).

我有一个运行在2核虚拟机群集上的服务,它表现出适度的CPU使用率(约55-70%空闲)但高于2个负载平均值,同时经历接近零的IO,适度的上下文切换,以及没有交换.使用ps进行轮询我从未在进程状态列中看到D.

该服务是在独角兽下运行的ruby 1.9.它连接到两个上游postgres数据库,这些数据库提供非常快速的avg语句执行(~0.5ms).该服务记录的请求持续时间大约是我们在性能测试网络上的较高压力负载下所证明的生产量的两倍.唯一看起来不稳定的监控信号是负载平均值(当然还有平均响应持续时间),其他所有信息(cpu,内存,io,网络,cswitch,intr)都是名义和匹配的投影.

系统是Ubuntu 10.04.4 LTS“清醒”. uname是Linux dirsvc0 2.6.32-32-server#62-Ubuntu SMP Wed Apr 20 22:07:43 UTC 2011 x86_64 GNU / Linux.管理程序是VMWare ESX 5.1.

更新:@ewwhite要求的更多信息.存储是映射到连接到NetApp的vm主机上的NFS安装的虚拟磁盘设备.我要指出的是,所有迹象都表明没有重要的磁盘IO发生.该服务读写网络套接字(~200KB / s)并进行普通访问和错误记录(速率约为20KB / s). vm主机有一对千兆端口,连接到两个机架式交换机顶部,每个交换机都有四个千兆端口连接到核心路由器,所有这些都是铜线.每个vm主机具有24(4×6)个物理内核和150GB内存,通常托管大约30个大小相似的vm来宾,运行各种不同的服务.在生产中,这些主机永远不会在内存上过度提交,只能在cpu上过度提交.

我很乐意解释高负荷的想法.

这是今天正午两小时窗口的一些提取sar数据:

sar -q#load average

              runq-sz  plist-sz   ldavg-1   ldavg-5  ldavg-15
12:05:01 PM         1       173      1.15      2.41      2.48
12:15:01 PM         0       173      0.96      1.56      1.99
12:25:01 PM         2       173      2.60      2.49      2.21
12:35:01 PM         1       173      1.44      2.10      2.06
12:45:01 PM         0       173      3.66      3.31      2.56
12:55:01 PM         0       173      3.05      2.66      2.43
01:05:01 PM         0       174      1.37      2.35      2.36
01:15:01 PM         0       173      3.06      3.07      2.60
01:25:01 PM         2       173      5.03      6.50      4.50
01:35:01 PM         0       173      4.26      5.61      4.98
01:45:01 PM         8       173      4.61      4.46      4.48
01:55:01 PM         0       173      3.30      3.60      3.92
02:05:01 PM         1       173      2.51      2.62      3.15

sar#cpu

                CPU     %user     %nice   %system   %iowait    %steal     %idle
12:05:01 PM     all     31.31      0.60      2.18      0.02      0.00     65.89
12:15:01 PM     all     27.51      0.60      2.07      0.02      0.00     69.79
12:25:01 PM     all     28.09      0.61      1.90      0.03      0.00     69.36
12:35:01 PM     all     32.04      0.67      2.26      0.02      0.00     65.02
12:45:01 PM     all     33.44      0.69      2.61      0.02      0.00     63.24
12:55:01 PM     all     30.62      0.63      2.14      0.02      0.00     66.59
01:05:01 PM     all     29.42      0.61      2.07      0.03      0.00     67.87
01:15:01 PM     all     31.93      0.62      2.39      0.02      0.00     65.05
01:25:01 PM     all     41.60      0.82      3.65      0.03      0.00     53.90
01:35:01 PM     all     43.14      0.88      3.68      0.03      0.00     52.28
01:45:01 PM     all     38.38      0.79      3.43      0.02      0.00     57.39
01:55:01 PM     all     30.65      0.61      2.23      0.03      0.00     66.49
02:05:01 PM     all     29.17      0.58      2.10      0.03      0.00     68.12

sar -d #disk

                  DEV       tps  rd_sec/s  wr_sec/s  avgrq-sz  avgqu-sz     await     svctm     %util 
12:05:01 PM    dev8-0      1.37      0.00     35.94     26.14      0.00      3.09      1.98      0.27
12:15:01 PM    dev8-0      1.65      0.00     39.89     24.23      0.00      2.96      1.98      0.33
12:25:01 PM    dev8-0      1.26      0.00     33.39     26.57      0.00      2.89      1.79      0.22
12:35:01 PM    dev8-0      1.33      0.00     35.23     26.52      0.00      3.15      1.82      0.24
12:45:01 PM    dev8-0      1.68      0.00     42.31     25.23      0.00      2.95      1.89      0.32
12:55:01 PM    dev8-0      1.44      0.00     35.76     24.86      0.00      3.20      1.88      0.27
01:05:01 PM    dev8-0      1.43      0.00     35.57     24.93      0.00      2.17      1.46      0.21
01:15:01 PM    dev8-0      1.74      0.00     43.13     24.74      0.01      3.88      2.15      0.37
01:25:01 PM    dev8-0      1.39      0.00     35.36     25.44      0.01      3.65      2.42      0.34
01:35:01 PM    dev8-0      1.32      0.00     33.74     25.65      0.00      3.39      2.09      0.28
01:45:01 PM    dev8-0      1.48      0.00     37.20     25.20      0.01      3.92      2.26      0.33
01:55:01 PM    dev8-0      1.62      0.00     39.36     24.35      0.01      3.27      1.70      0.27
02:05:01 PM    dev8-0      1.42      0.00     34.72     24.51      0.00      3.28      2.13      0.30

sar -n #network

                IFACE   rxpck/s   txpck/s    rxkB/s    txkB/s   rxcmp/s   txcmp/s  rxmcst/s
12:05:01 PM      eth0    365.52    359.86    236.91    227.35      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:15:01 PM      eth0    344.55    337.10    221.20    206.47      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:25:01 PM      eth0    357.81    352.76    229.83    216.22      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:35:01 PM      eth0    372.62    366.34    239.95    227.99      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:45:01 PM      eth0    388.65    378.51    252.11    235.81      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:55:01 PM      eth0    364.50    359.19    233.63    222.82      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:05:01 PM      eth0    361.08    353.88    231.75    218.89      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:15:01 PM      eth0    370.41    363.19    240.53    224.16      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:25:01 PM      eth0    357.67    352.20    230.37    213.57      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:35:01 PM      eth0    354.89    348.58    226.29    214.61      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:45:01 PM      eth0    355.49    344.98    228.41    211.27      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:55:01 PM      eth0    335.96    331.13    213.85    204.26      0.00      0.00      0.00
02:05:01 PM      eth0    323.03    314.49    208.12    194.81      0.00      0.00      0.00

sar -w#context开关

               proc/s   cswch/s
12:05:01 PM      0.97   2382.38
12:15:01 PM      2.58   2415.16
12:25:01 PM      0.84   2406.79
12:35:01 PM      0.84   2371.04
12:45:01 PM      2.70   2414.09
12:55:01 PM      0.84   2385.57
01:05:01 PM      1.20   2419.94
01:15:01 PM      2.57   2387.75
01:25:01 PM      0.85   2164.65
01:35:01 PM      0.84   2156.29
01:45:01 PM      2.53   2251.43
01:55:01 PM      1.01   2331.93
02:05:01 PM      0.96   2323.19

sar -B#paging

             pgpgin/s pgpgout/s   fault/s  majflt/s  pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s    %vmeff
12:05:01 PM      0.00     17.97    549.43      0.00    289.21      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:15:01 PM      0.00     19.95   1179.08      0.00    405.61      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:25:01 PM      0.00     16.69    456.71      0.00    217.63      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:35:01 PM      0.00     17.61    480.42      0.00    240.01      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:45:01 PM      0.00     21.15   1210.09      0.00    424.96      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
12:55:01 PM      0.00     17.88    489.83      0.00    256.39      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:05:01 PM      0.00     17.79    624.89      0.00    387.26      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:15:01 PM      0.00     21.57   1168.87      0.00    393.34      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:25:01 PM      0.00     17.68    466.03      0.00    235.07      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:35:01 PM      0.00     16.87    435.24      0.00    199.43      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:45:01 PM      0.00     18.60   1125.69      0.00    432.85      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
01:55:01 PM      0.00     19.68    596.62      0.00    272.75      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
02:05:01 PM      0.00     17.36    511.80      0.00    243.83      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00

sar -r#memory

            kbmemfree kbmemused  %memused kbbuffers  kbcached  kbcommit   %commit
12:05:01 PM   1017364   3041608     74.94    225564   1773324   1194728     16.64
12:15:01 PM   1014992   3043980     74.99    225564   1777268   1193688     16.63
12:25:01 PM   1009504   3049468     75.13    225564   1781360   1194504     16.64
12:35:01 PM    999484   3059488     75.38    225564   1785652   1194520     16.64
12:45:01 PM    994764   3064208     75.49    225564   1790136   1194864     16.65
12:55:01 PM    993772   3065200     75.52    225564   1794288   1194296     16.64
01:05:01 PM    993868   3065104     75.51    225564   1798584   1193428     16.63
01:15:01 PM    985016   3073956     75.73    225564   1802708   1194388     16.64
01:25:01 PM    992316   3066656     75.55    225564   1806804   1192996     16.62
01:35:01 PM    971732   3087240     76.06    225564   1810784   1194272     16.64
01:45:01 PM    968816   3090156     76.13    225564   1815036   1194556     16.64
01:55:01 PM    967968   3091004     76.15    225564   1818716   1194924     16.65
02:05:01 PM    966324   3092648     76.19    225564   1822452   1194516     16.64

ps aufx

USER       PID %CPU %MEM    VSZ   RSS TTY      STAT START   TIME COMMAND
root         2  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00 [kthreadd]
root         3  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:01  \_ [migration/0]
root         4  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   1:01  \_ [ksoftirqd/0]
root         5  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [watchdog/0]
root         6  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:01  \_ [migration/1]
root         7  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:27  \_ [ksoftirqd/1]
root         8  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [watchdog/1]
root         9  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:37  \_ [events/0]
root        10  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:33  \_ [events/1]
root        11  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [cpuset]
root        12  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [khelper]
root        13  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [async/mgr]
root        14  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [pm]
root        16  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:02  \_ [sync_supers]
root        17  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:04  \_ [bdi-default]
root        18  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kintegrityd/0]
root        19  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kintegrityd/1]
root        20  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:03  \_ [kblockd/0]
root        21  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:12  \_ [kblockd/1]
root        22  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kacpid]
root        23  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kacpi_notify]
root        24  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kacpi_hotplug]
root        25  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ata/0]
root        26  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ata/1]
root        27  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ata_aux]
root        28  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ksuspend_usbd]
root        29  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [khubd]
root        30  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kseriod]
root        31  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kmmcd]
root        34  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [khungtaskd]
root        35  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kswapd0]
root        36  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        SN   Jan28   0:00  \_ [ksmd]
root        37  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [aio/0]
root        38  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [aio/1]
root        39  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ecryptfs-kthrea]
root        40  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [crypto/0]
root        41  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [crypto/1]
root        44  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [pciehpd]
root        45  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_0]
root        46  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_1]
root        47  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kstriped]
root        50  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kmpathd/0]
root        51  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kmpathd/1]
root        52  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kmpath_handlerd]
root        53  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ksnapd]
root        54  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kondemand/0]
root        55  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kondemand/1]
root        56  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kconservative/0]
root        57  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kconservative/1]
root       213  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:24  \_ [mpt_poll_0]
root       274  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [mpt/0]
root       295  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_2]
root       310  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   1:41  \_ [jbd2/sda1-8]
root       311  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ext4-dio-unwrit]
root       312  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [ext4-dio-unwrit]
root       342  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:54  \_ [flush-8:0]
root       627  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ [kpsmoused]
root     18160  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Feb14   0:00  \_ [rpciod/0]
root     18161  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Feb14   0:00  \_ [rpciod/1]
root     18162  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    Feb14   0:00  \_ [nfsiod]
root         1  0.0  0.0  61824  2872 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:11 /sbin/init
root       372  0.0  0.0  16904   860 ?        S    Jan28   0:00 upstart-udev-bridge --daemon
root       375  0.0  0.0  17072  1012 ?        S<s  Jan28   0:00 udevd --daemon
root      1054  0.0  0.0  16860   672 ?        S<   Jan28   0:00  \_ udevd --daemon
root     18163  0.0  0.0  17068   832 ?        S<   Feb14   0:00  \_ udevd --daemon
daemon     654  0.0  0.0   8256   644 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00 portmap
root       788  0.0  0.0  49260  2592 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd -D
root      8095  0.0  0.1 100888  4068 ?        Ss   16:03   0:00  \_ sshd: root@pts/0    
root      8157  0.0  0.0  11212  2084 pts/0    Ss   16:03   0:00      \_ -bash
root     15777  0.0  0.0   7172  1084 pts/0    R+   17:28   0:00          \_ ps aufx
statd      808  0.0  0.0  10392   844 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00 rpc.statd -L
root       829  0.0  0.0    140    32 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:16 runsvdir -P /etc/service log: .....................................................................................................
root       834  0.0  0.0    116    32 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00  \_ runsv chef-client
root       838  0.0  0.0    136    48 ?        S    Jan28   0:00      \_ svlogd -tt ./main
root     30898  0.2  1.8 192296 75736 ?        S    01:57   2:25      \_ /usr/bin/ruby1.8 /usr/bin/chef-client -i 1800 -s 60 -L /var/log/chef/client.log
root       832  0.0  0.0   6080   656 tty4     Ss+  Jan28   0:00 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty4
root       841  0.0  0.0   6080   656 tty5     Ss+  Jan28   0:00 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty5
root       844  0.0  0.0   6080   656 tty2     Ss+  Jan28   0:00 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty2
root       845  0.0  0.0   6080   660 tty3     Ss+  Jan28   0:00 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty3
root       847  0.0  0.0   6080   656 tty6     Ss+  Jan28   0:00 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty6
root       849  0.0  0.0  21076  1044 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:04 cron
daemon     853  0.0  0.0  18884   468 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00 atd
root       864  0.0  0.0  11284   640 ?        Ss   Jan28   2:10 /usr/sbin/irqbalance
root       890  0.0  0.0 112412  1908 ?        Ssl  Jan28   5:09 /usr/sbin/automount
root       908  0.0  0.0  28016   976 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx
www-data   910  0.0  0.0  64532  3064 ?        S    Jan28   0:00  \_ nginx: worker process
root       922  0.0  0.0 169668  2584 ?        Ssl  Jan28   0:34 /usr/sbin/nscd
mail       943  0.0  0.0  11888   648 ?        S    Jan28   0:00 /usr/sbin/nullmailer-send -d
root       971  0.0  1.1 152036 46264 ?        Sl   Jan28  36:07 splunkd -p 8089 start
root       972  0.0  0.0  49180  3512 ?        Ss   Jan28   0:00  \_ splunkd -p 8089 start
root      1160  0.0  0.0  14888  1276 ?        Ss   Jan28  19:31 /usr/lib/vmware-tools/sbin64/vmware-guestd --background /var/run/vmware-guestd.pid
ntp       1214  0.0  0.0  19700  1268 ?        Ss   Jan28   1:21 /usr/sbin/ntpd -p /var/run/ntpd.pid -g -c /var/lib/ntp/ntp.conf.dhcp -u 103:107
root      1231  0.0  0.3  21164 12980 ?        SLs  Jan28   0:00 /usr/sbin/memlockd -u memlockd
scs       1270  1.2  2.3 187788 96228 ?        SNl  Jan28 537:27 /usr/bin/ruby /opt/wp/roles/scs/src/dev/scs/bin/server.rb -p 8843
root      1309  0.0  0.0   6080   656 tty1     Ss+  Jan28   0:00 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty1
dirsvc   27448  0.1  1.2 177408 50748 ?        Sl   Feb20   8:57 narwhal master --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.19/confi
dirsvc   13003  2.5  1.2 180012 49128 ?        Sl   16:57   0:47  \_ narwhal worker[1] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13460  2.5  1.2 180108 49236 ?        Sl   17:05   0:36  \_ narwhal worker[9] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13637  2.4  1.2 180008 49096 ?        Sl   17:08   0:29  \_ narwhal worker[3] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13650  2.9  1.2 180172 49420 ?        Sl   17:08   0:35  \_ narwhal worker[11] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.
dirsvc   13701  3.1  1.2 180172 49188 ?        Sl   17:10   0:35  \_ narwhal worker[13] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.
dirsvc   13731  2.7  1.2 181556 50628 ?        Sl   17:10   0:29  \_ narwhal worker[7] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13770  2.8  1.2 179400 50352 ?        Sl   17:11   0:29  \_ narwhal worker[8] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13778  3.3  1.2 180104 49172 ?        Sl   17:11   0:34  \_ narwhal worker[5] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13826  2.6  1.2 181556 50672 ?        Sl   17:12   0:25  \_ narwhal worker[0] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13939  2.8  1.2 177948 48848 ?        Sl   17:13   0:25  \_ narwhal worker[4] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   13971  3.2  1.4 189052 58292 ?        Sl   17:13   0:28  \_ narwhal worker[12] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.
dirsvc   13982  2.5  1.2 177792 48780 ?        Sl   17:14   0:22  \_ narwhal worker[6] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   15316  3.0  1.2 180072 49128 ?        Sl   17:20   0:15  \_ narwhal worker[2] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.1
dirsvc   15381  2.0  1.2 179944 48928 ?        Sl   17:21   0:08  \_ narwhal worker[14] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.
dirsvc   15743  3.5  1.1 177624 48596 ?        Sl   17:28   0:00  \_ narwhal worker[10] --port 8862 -c /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.
dirsvc   27461  0.1  1.3 235884 54744 ?        Sl   Feb20   9:20 /opt/ruby-1.9.2/bin/ruby /opt/wp/roles/directory/src/dev/directory/vendor/bundle/ruby/1.9.1/gems/wp-directory-svc-2.1.19/gem-bin/wo
root     11068  0.0  0.0 130480  1720 ?        Sl   04:20   0:00 rsyslogd -c4
zabbix   18062  0.0  0.0   9908   728 ?        SN   11:41   0:00 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd
zabbix   18063  0.0  0.0   9908   756 ?        SN   11:41   0:12  \_ /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd
zabbix   18064  0.0  0.0   9980  1044 ?        SN   11:41   0:03  \_ /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd
zabbix   18065  0.0  0.0   9980  1044 ?        SN   11:41   0:03  \_ /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd
zabbix   18066  0.0  0.0   9980  1044 ?        SN   11:41   0:03  \_ /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd
zabbix   18067  0.0  0.0   9908   660 ?        SN   11:41   0:00  \_ /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd

编辑:更多信息请求:

$dpkg --get-selections | grep vmware
vmware-open-vm-tools-common         install
vmware-open-vm-tools-kmod-2.6.32-32-server  install

$cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor   : 0
vendor_id   : GenuineIntel
cpu family  : 6
model       : 44
model name  : Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU           X5660  @ 2.80GHz
stepping    : 2
cpu MHz     : 2800.099
cache size  : 12288 KB
fpu     : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level : 11
wp      : yes
flags       : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology tsc_reliable nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni pclmulqdq ssse3 cx16 sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt aes hypervisor lahf_lm ida arat
bogomips    : 5600.19
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes   : 40 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:

processor   : 1
vendor_id   : GenuineIntel
cpu family  : 6
model       : 44
model name  : Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU           X5660  @ 2.80GHz
stepping    : 2
cpu MHz     : 2800.099
cache size  : 12288 KB
fpu     : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level : 11
wp      : yes
flags       : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good xtopology tsc_reliable nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni pclmulqdq ssse3 cx16 sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt aes hypervisor lahf_lm ida arat
bogomips    : 5600.19
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes   : 40 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:
负载平均值基于在运行队列中等待的进程.这意味着如果您的进程通常使用小数时间片,则可以看到高负载平均值而没有高CPU利用率.

最好的例子是邮件.发送消息所需的CPU时间量非常有限,但当数千条邮件在系统中移动时(特别是如果邮件守护程序分叉处理每个邮件),运行队列会变得非常长.通常会看到运行良好,响应迅速的邮件服务器,平均负载为25,50到100.

对于Web服务器,我将页面响应时间用作主要指标,不要担心负载平均值.在现代调度程序中,负载平均值小于核心数量的两倍通常不会产生负面影响.您可能希望尝试每个VM的核心数与VM的总数.一些应用程序将受益于少数计算机上的许多核心,而其他应用程序在少数核心和许多实例中更好.

翻译自:https://serverfault.com/questions/482832/high-load-average-with-modest-cpu-utilization-and-almost-no-io

转载注明原文:linux – 高负载平均值,CPU利用率适中,几乎没有IO