macos – 如何从x86_64-apple-darwin主机为i386-apple-darwin目标构建交叉编译器?

问题概述

我正在尝试学习如何在针对i386-apple-darwin(32位Intel)的64位Intel OS X主机上构建交叉编译器,特别是GNU gcc 4.7.2的版本.但是,我一直陷入同样的​​错误:

...
checking for i386-apple-darwin-gcc... /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/xgcc -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/lib/ -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/include -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/sys-include
checking for suffix of object files... configure: error: in `/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/libgcc':
configure: error: cannot compute suffix of object files: cannot compile
See `config.log' for more details.
make[1]: *** [configure-target-libgcc] Error 1
make: *** [all] Error 2

构建过程

我首先构建了一个GNU binutils版本,它的目标是i386-apple-darwin,GNU gcc build文件夹可以访问它:

$cd third-party
$wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/binutils-2.23.2.tar.bz2
$tar xjvf binutils-2.23.2.tar.bz2
$mkdir i386-apple-darwin
$mkdir build-binutils && cd build-binutils
$../binutils-2.23.2/configure --target=i386-apple-darwin --prefix="/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc"
$make all && make install
...

然后我尝试构建一个目标版本的gcc,如下所示:

$cd ..
$pwd
/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party
$wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/gcc/gcc-4.7.2/gcc-4.7.2.tar.bz2
$tar xvjf gcc-4.7.2.tar.bz2
$cd gcc-4.7.2
$./contrib/download_prerequisites
... /* this grabs GMP, MPC and MPFR dependencies */
$cd ..
$mkdir build-gcc && cd build-gcc
$../gcc-4.7.2/configure --target=i386-apple-darwin --prefix="/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/Bedops/bedops/third-party/i386-apple-gcc"
$make
...

编译完东西大约30分钟后,它会被上面显示的错误信息卡住.

错误详情

要跟踪错误的来源,这里有一个build-gcc / i386-apple-darwin / libgcc / config.log的片段:

configure:3344: /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/xgcc -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/lib/ -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/include -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/sys-include    -V >&5
xgcc: error: unrecognized command line option '-V'
xgcc: fatal error: no input files
compilation terminated.
configure:3355: $? = 1
configure:3344: /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/xgcc -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/lib/ -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/include -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/sys-include    -qversion >&5
xgcc: error: unrecognized command line option '-qversion'
xgcc: fatal error: no input files
compilation terminated.
configure:3355: $? = 1
configure:3371: /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/xgcc -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/lib/ -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/include -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/sys-include    -o conftest -g -O2   conftest.c  >&5
Assembler messages:
Fatal error: invalid listing option `r'
configure:3374: $? = 1
configure:3562: checking for suffix of object files
configure:3584: /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/xgcc -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/./gcc/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/ -B/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/lib/ -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/include -isystem /Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/sys-include    -c -g -O2  conftest.c >&5
Assembler messages:
Fatal error: invalid listing option `r'
configure:3588: $? = 1
configure: failed program was:
| /* confdefs.h */
| #define PACKAGE_NAME "GNU C Runtime Library"
| #define PACKAGE_TARNAME "libgcc"
| #define PACKAGE_VERSION "1.0"
| #define PACKAGE_STRING "GNU C Runtime Library 1.0"
| #define PACKAGE_BUGREPORT ""
| #define PACKAGE_URL "http://www.gnu.org/software/libgcc/"
| /* end confdefs.h.  */
|
| int
| main ()
| {
|
|   ;
|   return 0;
| }
configure:3602: error: in `/Users/alexpreynolds/Developer/third-party/build-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/libgcc':
configure:3605: error: cannot compute suffix of object files: cannot compile
See `config.log' for more details.

我正在引导的编译器

$gcc -v
Using built-in specs.
COLLECT_GCC=gcc
COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/opt/local/libexec/gcc/x86_64-apple-darwin12/4.7.2/lto-wrapper
Target: x86_64-apple-darwin12
Configured with: ../gcc-4.7.2/configure --prefix=/opt/local --build=x86_64-apple-darwin12 --enable-languages=c,c++,objc,obj-c++,lto,fortran,java --libdir=/opt/local/lib/gcc47 --includedir=/opt/local/include/gcc47 --infodir=/opt/local/share/info --mandir=/opt/local/share/man --datarootdir=/opt/local/share/gcc-4.7 --with-libiconv-prefix=/opt/local --with-local-prefix=/opt/local --with-system-zlib --disable-nls --program-suffix=-mp-4.7 --with-gxx-include-dir=/opt/local/include/gcc47/c++/ --with-gmp=/opt/local --with-mpfr=/opt/local --with-mpc=/opt/local --with-ppl=/opt/local --with-cloog=/opt/local --enable-cloog-backend=isl --disable-cloog-version-check --enable-stage1-checking --enable-lto --enable-libstdcxx-time --with-as=/opt/local/bin/as --with-ld=/opt/local/bin/ld --with-ar=/opt/local/bin/ar --with-bugurl=https://trac.macports.org/newticket --disable-ppl-version-check --with-pkgversion='MacPorts gcc47 4.7.2_2+universal'
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.7.2 (MacPorts gcc47 4.7.2_2+universal) 

我是否在设置coreutils或gcc的构建环境时错过了一个步骤,以便产生此错误?

在尝试解决此错误时,我还可以解决哪些问题?我对这个错误消息的谷歌搜索没有多少成果.

变化

我更改了构建脚本,如下所示:

#!/bin/bash -x

WORK_DIR=$PWD
INSTALL_DIR=$WORK_DIR/gcc-4.7.2-darwin
MIN_OSX_VERSION=10.5

if [ -d "$INSTALL_DIR" ]; then
    echo "Directory $INSTALL_DIR already exists";
    exit 1
fi

BINUTILS=binutils-2.23.2
TARBALL_BINUTILS=$BINUTILS.tar.bz2
URL_BINUTILS=http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/$TARBALL_BINUTILS
SOURCE_BINUTILS_DIR=$WORK_DIR/$BINUTILS
BUILD_BINUTILS_DIR=$WORK_DIR/build-$BINUTILS

GCC=gcc-4.7.2
TARBALL_GCC=$GCC.tar.bz2
URL_GCC=http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/gcc/$GCC/$TARBALL_GCC
SOURCE_GCC_DIR=$WORK_DIR/$GCC
BUILD_GCC_DIR=$WORK_DIR/build-$GCC

curl -O $URL_BINUTILS
mkdir -p $SOURCE_BINUTILS_DIR
tar -xjvf $TARBALL_BINUTILS
rm $TARBALL_BINUTILS
mkdir -p $BUILD_BINUTILS_DIR
cd $BUILD_BINUTILS_DIR
$SOURCE_BINUTILS_DIR/configure --prefix=$INSTALL_DIR
make -j $(sysctl -n hw.availcpu) all CFLAGS='-Wno-error' && make install

find $INSTALL_DIR -name '*strip*' -delete

cd $WORK_DIR

curl -O $URL_GCC
mkdir -p $SOURCE_GCC_DIR
tar -xvjf $TARBALL_GCC
rm $TARBALL_GCC
cd $SOURCE_GCC_DIR
sed -i '' -e 's/wget/curl -O/g' $SOURCE_GCC_DIR/contrib/download_prerequisites
$SOURCE_GCC_DIR/contrib/download_prerequisites
cd $WORK_DIR
mkdir -p $BUILD_GCC_DIR
cd $BUILD_GCC_DIR
$SOURCE_GCC_DIR/configure --prefix=$INSTALL_DIR --enable-languages=c,c++
make -j $(sysctl -n hw.availcpu) CFLAGS="-mmacosx-version-min=$MIN_OSX_VERSION" && make install

find $INSTALL_DIR -name '*.a' -print0 | xargs -0 -n1 ranlib

rm -Rf $BUILD_GCC_DIR
rm -Rf $BUILD_BINUTILS_DIR
rm -Rf $SOURCE_GCC_DIR
rm -Rf $SOURCE_BINUTILS_DIR

由于在构建库的过程中存在许多错误,因此需要ranlib步骤.

要构建i386二进制文件,我必须使用我的Makefile执行以下操作:

ARCH                 = i386
...
GCCDIR               = ${PARTY3}/gcc-4.7.2-darwin
GCCBINDIR            = ${GCCDIR}/bin
GCCLIBDIR            = ${GCCDIR}/lib
GCCINCDIR            = ${GCCDIR}/include
...
LIBCPP               = libgcc_eh.a
LIBCXX               = libstdc++.a
...
INCLUDES             = -I${GCCINCDIR} ...
...
CC                   = ${GCCBINDIR}/gcc
CXX                  = ${GCCBINDIR}/g++
...
GCCCPPLIBPATH        = ${GCCLIBDIR}/gcc/x86_64-apple-darwin12.3.0/4.7.2/${ARCH}/${LIBCPP}
GCCCXXLIBPATH        = ${GCCLIBDIR}/${ARCH}/${LIBCXX}
...
FLAGS                = ${SFLAGS} ${NONSTATICFLAGS} ${OBJS} -L${GCCLIBDIR} ...
...
run: dependencies
    mkdir -p ${BIN} && ${CXX} -o ${BIN}/${PROG}_${ARCH} ${FLAGS} -static-libgcc -mmacosx-version-min=${MIN_OSX_VERSION} -arch ${ARCH} ... ${GCCCPPLIBPATH} ${GCCCXXLIBPATH} ${SOURCE1}

Makefile更改摘要:

>我不得不添加-static-libgcc标志并省略-static-libstdc,它没有任何效果(除了导致构建失败,直到我在静态库上运行ranlib,这修复了构建失败但没有效果on -static-libstdc).
>我将${GCCCPPLIBPATH}和${GCCCXXLIBPATH}添加到运行目标,每个目标分别指向静态C anc C库libgcc_eh.a和libstdc .a.

这允许我编译一个工作的i386(32位)二进制文件,但相同的GCC安装无法构建一个工作的x86_64(64位)二进制文件.

最佳答案
在考虑了这一点之后,我发现到目前为止最简单的解决方案是为x86_64编译GCC,然后在你希望为i386构建时只传递-m32.由于某种原因,这不足以满足您的需求吗?以这种方式构建非常简单,并且不需要下面描述的任何疯狂.执行以下事件序列会导致工作的编译器在请求时吐出i386二进制文件:

WORK_DIR=$PWD
INSTALL_DIR=$WORK_DIR/install

curl -O http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/binutils-2.23.2.tar.bz2
tar xjvf binutils-2.23.2.tar.bz2
mkdir build-binutils && cd build-binutils
../binutils-2.23.2/configure --prefix=$INSTALL_DIR
make -j $(sysctl -n hw.availcpu) all CFLAGS='-Wno-error' && make install

find $INSTALL_DIR -name '*strip*' -delete

cd $WORK_DIR

curl -O http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/gcc/gcc-4.7.2/gcc-4.7.2.tar.bz2
tar xvjf gcc-4.7.2.tar.bz2
cd gcc-4.7.2
sed -i '' -e 's/wget/curl -O/g' ./contrib/download_prerequisites
./contrib/download_prerequisites
cd ..
mkdir build-gcc && cd build-gcc
../gcc-4.7.2/configure --prefix=$INSTALL_DIR --enable-languages=c,c++
make -j $(sysctl -n hw.availcpu) && make install

完成后,您可以看到它的运作方式如下:

mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$cat > test.cpp
#include <iostream>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    std::cerr << "Built with GCC 4.7" << std::endl;
    return 0;
}

^D
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$./install/bin/g++ -o test test.cpp 
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$file test
test: Mach-O 64-bit executable x86_64
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$./install/bin/g++ -m32 -static-libgcc -static-libstdc++ -o test test.cpp 
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$file test
test: Mach-O executable i386
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$otool -L ./test
./test:
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1192.0.0)
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$./test 
Built with GCC 4.7
mrowe@falcon:~/tmp$

如果您看到如下警告:

ignoring file …/4.7.2/i386/libgcc.a, file was built for archive which is not the architecture being linked (i386)

您可以通过在静态库上运行ranlib来修复它们:

find $INSTALL_DIR -name '*.a' -print0 | xargs -0 -n1 ranlib

以下是我试图帮助你沿着你试图遵循的道路.我认为这不是理想的方法,而是充满了问题.

您报告的错误是由于您的GCC构建试图在生成的程序集与Apple的cctools中的GNU汇编程序组装时尝试使用binutils中的GNU汇编程序.支持的汇编方言在两者之间有所不同,因为Apple的汇编程序多年前与上游GNU汇编程序不同.

我能够找到的用于构建cctools的所有说明都已过时,所以我进行了实验,直到我得到了一些工作.我做了一些接近以下的事情:

curl -O http://opensource.apple.com/tarballs/cctools/cctools-829.tar.gz
tar xvzf cctools-829.tar.gz
cd cctools-829

然后,您需要修补两个文件,以便在不依赖LLVM的情况下进行构建:

diff -ru cctools-829/libstuff/lto.c cctools-829.modified/libstuff/lto.c
--- cctools-829/libstuff/lto.c  1969-12-31 16:00:00.000000000 -0800
+++ cctools-829.modified/libstuff/lto.c 2013-04-05 03:18:34.000000000 -0700
@@ -376,4 +376,18 @@
        lto_dispose(mod);
 }

+#else 
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+__private_extern__
+int
+is_llvm_bitcode(
+                struct ofile *ofile,
+                char *addr,
+                size_t size)
+{
+    return 0;
+}
+
 #endif /* LTO_SUPPORT */
diff -ru cctools-829/misc/libtool.c cctools-829.modified/misc/libtool.c
--- cctools-829/misc/libtool.c  1969-12-31 16:00:00.000000000 -0800
+++ cctools-829.modified/misc/libtool.c 2013-04-05 03:20:21.000000000 -0700
@@ -1369,8 +1369,11 @@
                    }
                }
                 }
-                else if(ofiles[i].arch_type == OFILE_Mach_O ||
-                        ofiles[i].arch_type == OFILE_LLVM_BITCODE){
+                else if(ofiles[i].arch_type == OFILE_Mach_O
+#ifdef LTO_SUPPORT
+                            || ofiles[i].arch_type == OFILE_LLVM_BITCODE
+#endif
+                            ){
                if(cmd_flags.ranlib == TRUE){
                    error("for architecture: %s file: %s is not an "
                          "archive (no processing done on this file)",

然后构建:

make install USE_DEPENDENCY_FILE=NO BUILD_DYLIBS=NO LTO= TRIE= DSTROOT=../build-cctools

并手动安装必要的部件:

cd ..
cp build-cctools/usr/bin/as i386-apple-gcc/bin/i386-apple-darwin-as
cp build-cctools/usr/bin/as i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/as
cp build-cctools/usr/bin/lipo i386-apple-gcc/bin/i386-apple-darwin-lipo
cp build-cctools/usr/bin/lipo i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/lipo
cp build-cctools/usr/bin/strip i386-apple-gcc/bin/i386-apple-darwin-strip
cp build-cctools/usr/bin/strip i386-apple-gcc/i386-apple-darwin/bin/strip

如果我们再次尝试构建GCC,我们会发现构建过程很难过,因为我们新构建的汇编程序无法定位x86_64.由于这似乎与您尝试实现的内容无关,因此您可以将-disable-multilib参数添加到GCC的配置脚本中,以防止它尝试这样做.

此时我在尝试构建libgcc时遇到了错误.这些错误是因为无法找到合适的链接器,所以我想现在你需要download并构建ld64.

而且正是在这一点上,我已经没有时间让它更进一步了.祝好运!

转载注明原文:macos – 如何从x86_64-apple-darwin主机为i386-apple-darwin目标构建交叉编译器? - 代码日志