Three archetypes of open innovation processes (Gassmann and Enkel 2004) – 流程图

After an analysis on 124 companies’ database, Gassmann and Enkel (2004) have identified three core open innovation processes based on the direction of knowledge flowing, such as the outside-in process, also called inbound open innovation, inside-out process, which is known as outbound open innovation, and the coupled process.
Three

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